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Dr. Zhao's research focuses on developing translational biosensors, including implantable neuroprobes and wearable devices, to monitor chemical signaling in the body. Developing sensors that can monitor biomarkers in body fluids with high sensitivities and high selectivities is the key to unlock the next generation of bioelectronics. Advances have been made in healthcare monitoring and medical therapies with the potential for enhancing human wellbeing and performance yet to be realized. He is excited at the prospect of developing novel bioelectronics systems, such as implantable and wearable devices, and applying these systems in biomedicine.

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Implantable aptamer–field-effect transistor neuroprobes for in vivo neurotransmitter monitoring (Science Advances 2021)

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A wearable biosensing system for noninvasive hormone monitoring (Science Advances 2022)


A universal platform to overcome Debye length limitations for small-molecule sensing using
aptamer field-effect transistor biosensors (iScience 2020ACS Sensors 2019, Science 2018)


Multiplexed and highly sensitive one-dimensional nanoribbon field-effect transistor biosensors
(ACS Nano 2021, iScience 2020Nano Letters 2018)


A high-throughput, low-cost, and large-area micro-/nanofabrication platform: chemical lift-off lithography
(ACS Nano 2021, ACS Materials Letters 2020, Nano Letters 2020Nano Letters 2018, Nano Letters 2017)

Research Experience

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University                                                                           2021−present

Postdoctoral scholar, principal investigator: Prof. Zhenan Bao

  • Fully soft and skin-like wearable sensing systems

  • Organic field-effect transistor biosensors

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, UCLA                                                                                                2015−2020

Graduate researcher, principal investigators: Prof. Anne M. Andrews and Prof. Paul S. Weiss

  • Implantable silicon neuroprobes with arrays of aptamer-based neurochemical biosensors

  • Ultra-sensitive metal-oxide field-effect transistor biosensor systems

  • Flexible and wearable biosensor systems for sweat hormone monitoring

  • Nanoscale chemical patterning using soft lithography

  • Micro/nanoscale fabrication processes for precision medicine and intracellular delivery

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